Peter Bates > The Inclusion Web > Who developed the Inclusion Web?

Who developed the Inclusion Web?

The National Development Team for Inclusion (NDTi) was created in 2009 by the integration of the National Development Team (formed in the 1970s) and the Older People’s Programme (formed in 2001). We are a not-for-profit organisation working with people who are at risk of exclusion, and with the services and people that support them.

​Since the very beginning, we have encouraged organisations to listen more carefully to and really involve people using services, and to see those individuals as full contributors to wider community life.

The Inclusion Web concept was developed by Peter Bates with creative contribution from Susie Tomsett and then substantial development and pilot work by Andrew Gibb and the team at the Mainstream project at Imagine, Liverpool. Dr John Holden offered some welcome advice and Dr Suzanne Hacking created the Inclusion Web Spreadsheet.

The Inclusion Web Resource Pack was published by NDTi in 2010. By 2015, an update was required, and the revised 2016 version was made available online.


A note on language

​In these pages, the terms ‘person’ and people’ will generally be used in place of labels like ‘client’, patient or ‘service user’. Other people will be identified by their designation. Thus, the professional relationship exists between the ‘person and the worker’.

What has been published on the Inclusion Web?

The following papers have cited the Inclusion Web (most recent first):


  • Semb, R., Sælør, K.T. & Borg, M. Resist or Adapt? A Narrative Analysis of Endeavors for Belonging Among Young Adults with Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Problems. J. Psychosoc. Rehabil. Ment. Health (2021).



  • Vanek J (forthcoming, April 2019) Let Me Do That Too! How mainstream inclusion techniques are revolutionising mental health Published in collaboration with Tonbridge Wells Mental Health Resource centre. John is giving a talk about his work here.


  • Hall T, Jordan H, Reifels L, Belmore S, Hardy D, Thompson H and Brophy L (2018) A Process and Intermediate Outcomes Evaluation of an Australian Recovery College Hall Journal of Recovery in Mental Health Vol.1 No. 3 March 2018 ISSN: 2371-2376 7


  • van Bergen, A.P.L., Hoff, S.J.M., Schreurs, H. et al. (2017) Social Exclusion Index-for Health Surveys (SEI-HS): a prospective nationwide study to extend and validate a multidimensional social exclusion questionnaire. BMC Public Health 17, 253. 
  • Cordier R, Milbourn B, Martin R, Buchanan A, Chung D, Speyer R (2017) A systematic review evaluating the psychometric properties of measures of social inclusion. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0179109.
  • A blog about the work of Waymarks here.


  •  Blank A, Finlay L, Prior S. The lived experience of people with mental health and substance misuse problems: Dimensions of belonging. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2016;79(7):434-441. doi:10.1177/0308022615627175


  • Tilley E, Ledger S & Bardsley J (2015) A review of the literature concerning learning disability, challenging behaviour and social work. The College of Social Work.
  • Greig R (2015) The policy construct behind community care. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities61(2), pp.61-67.
  • Davis FA & Burns J (2015) The Development and Properties of the Support Needs Questionnaire. Social Inclusion3(4), pp.63-75.
  • Fovet, Frederic. (2015). Exploring the “Third Space” experiences of students with SEBD within outdoors and online contexts. PhD Thesis, La Trobe University, Australia. 
  • Parkinson S, Di Bona L, Fletcher N, Vecsey T & Wheeler, K. (2015) Profession-specific working in mental health: Impact for occupational therapists and service users. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62 (2), 55-66.


  • Parkinson S (2014) Recovery Through Activity: Increasing participation in everyday life Speechmark
  • Shepherd G, Boardman J, Rinaldi M, Roberts G. (2014) Supporting recovery in mental health services: Quality and outcomes. London: Implementing Recovery Through Organisational Change. 2014.


  • Clifton A, Repper J, Banks D & Remnant J (2013) Co‐producing social inclusion: the structure/agency conundrum. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing20(6), pp.514-524.
  • Clewes J, Shivamurthy S & Wrigley S (2013) Brightening His Days: A Reflective Single Case-Study of Social Integration and Recovery.Occupational Therapy in Mental Health29(2), pp.159-180.
  • Coombs T, Nicholas A. & Pirkis J (2013) A review of social inclusion measures. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry47(10), pp.906-919.


  • Obisike EE, Wallace L, Alexander JL & Brouwer M (2012). Enhancing person-centred planning for adults living with disabilities using dynamic organisation culture. European Scientific Journal8(29).


  • Smyth G, Harries P and Dorer G (2011) Exploring mental health service users’ experiences of social inclusion in their community occupations British Journal of Occupational Therapy 74(7), 323-331.


  • Bates P (2010) Inclusion Web Resource Pack Bath: National Development Team for Inclusion. This is the old version, now superseded by these webpages.
  • Le Boutillier C & Croucher A (2010) Social inclusion and mental health. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy73(3), pp.136-139.
  • Lester H & Glasby J (2010) Mental health policy and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.


  • Bates P, Seddon J & Dowell A ‘Social inclusion work in mental health: using life domains and the Inclusion Web’, chapter 11 in Poll C, Kennedy J & Sanderson H (2009) In Community, In practice Manchester: HSA Press/In Control.
  • National Social Inclusion Programme (2009) Outcomes Framework for Mental Health Services. The Inclusion Web is included in a list of just three recommended measures. See here.


  • Hacking S & Bates P (2008) The Inclusion Web as a tool for person-centred planning and service evaluation. Mental Health Review Journal: Research, Policy and Practice. Vol 13, No 2, pp 4-15. Download it here.​
  • Fisher B (2008) Social Inclusion in Cohen A (2008) Delivering Mental Health in Primary Care London: Royal College of General Practitioners. Pp335-357.


  • Corbett P & Howe H (2007) Bridge building in mental health OT News January 2007, pp 24-25.
  • Corbett P (2007) Building toward recovery: The Warneford crisis day service (Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Mental Health Trust) (2007) NIMHE Mental Health Promotion Update Care Services Improvement Partnership March 2007, pp21-22.
  • National Social Inclusion Programme (2007) Day services outcomes framework hereThe Inclusion Web is the first of a list of just four recommended measures in this publication.


  • Bates P (2002) A Real Asset: A Manual on Supported Volunteering Manchester: National Development Team.